Recent Photon Detector R&D

Arisaka has been active on development of new types of vacuum photon detectors for the last two decades. Below shows some examples of the recent developments.

HAPD (Hybrid Avalanche Photo Diode)

For the last decade, Arisaka has been the primary force behind the development of HAPD. He first pointed out its superiority over conventional photomultiplier in late 1990's. After several years of development in collaboration with Hamamatsu Photonics, HAPD with GaAsP photocathode with 50% Quantum Efficiency become mature technology.


The figure above shows the principle of HAPD (on the right) and an actual product by Hamamatsu Photonics (on the left). The Transit Time Spread it only 90 ps (FWHM), making is as the fastest photon detractor with digital photon counting capability. This device has been adopted as a new photon detector for laser scanning microscopes by Leica Microsystems (called HyD).

QUPID (Quartz Photon Intensifying Detector)

QUPID is based on the same concept of HAPD. The major difference is that it is entirely made by quartz (Synthetic Fused Silica). Quartz is well known to be free from any radioactivity, making QUPID the ideal photon detector for the future dark matter and double beta decay experiments where the radioactivity from photon detectors is the major source of the backgrounds.


The above picture illustrates the concept of QUPID. The left side is the cross section of QUPID and the right side is the simulation of electron trajectories showing that all the photo-elecrons are focused onto 3 mm diameter APD at the center of QUPID.


This is the picture of the actual QUPID manufactured by Hamamatsu. The left side shows the photocathode and the right side shows readout pins at the back, together with the quartz tube for external vacuum pumping.


This is a 7 QUPID array being assembled at UCLA for testing in liquid xenon and argon. The open space between QUPID and QUPID is shielded by Teflon (PTFE) blocks. Detailed information is available below:

Characterization of the QUartz Photon Intensifying Detector (QUPID) for Noble Liquid Detectors.

By A. Teymourian, D. Aharoni, L. Baudis, P. Beltrame, E. Brown, D. Cline, A.D. Ferella, A. Fukasawa et al..
[arXiv:1103.3689 [physics.ins-det]].
10.1016/j.nima.2011.07.015. Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A654 (2011) 184-195.

3 inch Low Radioactivity Metal PMT (R11410-21)

The XENON1T detector will be equipped with ~250 pieces of 3 inch photon sensors. For timely construction and reliable operation, the XENON collaboration has adopted a conservative solution of the metal PMT (R11410). Arisaka's group has been collaborating with Hamamatsu to optimize its performance and to reduce its radioactivity.


The above picture shows the 7 PMT array which has been assembled at UCLA for operation in liquid xenon and argon. So far 3 PMTs have been installed. The support structure is made by pure copper which serves as a real prototype for the XENON1T mechanical structure. Extensive studies of the characteristics of R111410 was published below:

Characterization of the Hamamatsu R11410-10 3-Inch Photomultiplier Tube for Liquid Xenon Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments.

By K. Lung, K. Arisaka, A. Bargetzi, P. Beltrame, A. Cahill, T. Genma, C. Ghag, D. Gordon et al..
[arXiv:1202.2628 [physics.ins-det]].
10.1016/j.nima.2012.08.052. Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A696 (2012) 32-39.

Researches at Arisaka Lab

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