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Recurrent inhibitory circuitry as a mechanism for grid formation

Grid cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex form a principal component of the mammalian neural representation of space. The firing pattern of a single grid cell has been hypothesized to be generated through attractor dynamics in a network with a specific local connectivity including both excitatory and inhibitory connections. However, experimental evidence supporting the presence of such
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Mars May Have Supported Life: Martian Underground Could Contain Clues to Life's Origins

Minerals found in the subsurface of Mars, a zone of more than three miles below ground, make for the strongest evidence yet that the red planet may have supported life, according to research "Groundwater activity on Mars and implications for a deep biosphere," published inNature Geoscience on January 20, 2013.Science Daily, Jan 20, 2013Joseph R. Michalski, et al.Wright.Groundwater activity on
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Nearby Universe's 'Cosmic Fog' Measured

HESS collaboration has carried out the first measurement of the intensity of the diffuse extragalactic background light in the nearby Universe, a fog of photons that has filled the Universe ever since its formation. Using some of the brightest gamma-ray sources in the southern hemisphere, the study was carried out using measurements performed by the HESS telescope array, located in Namibia and involving
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The Cell That Isn't: New Technique Captures Division of Membrane-Less Cells

A new technique allows scientists to study cell division without a cell membrane. There are several advantages: it can be physically constrained and manipulated; one can access nuclei which is normally buried deep in an opaque embryo; the method ican be combined with a wide-range of fruit fly genetics techniques. The method has revealed that, surprisingly, confined space not enough to restrict spindle
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The evolutionary causes and consequences of sex-biased gene expression

Females and males often differ extensively in their physical traits. This sexual dimorphism is largely caused by differences in gene expression. Recent advances in genomics, such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), have revealed the nature and extent of sex-biased gene expression in diverse species. Here the authors highlight new findings regarding the causes of sex-biased expression, including sexual antagonism
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RNA interference in the nucleus: roles for small RNAs in transcription, epigenetics and beyond

A growing number of functions are emerging for RNA interference (RNAi) in the nucleus, in addition to well-characterized roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm. Epigenetic modifications directed by small RNAs have been shown to cause transcriptional repression in plants, fungi and animals. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that RNAi regulates transcription through interaction
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Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration

The human Y chromosome is intriguing not only because it harbours the master-switch gene that determines gender but also because of its unusual evolutionary history. The Y chromosome evolved from an autosome, and its evolution has been characterized by massive gene decay. Recent whole-genome and transcriptome analyses of Y chromosomes in humans and other primates, in Drosophila species and in plants
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Human brain evolution: transcripts, metabolites and their regulators

What evolutionary events led to the emergence of human cognition? Although the genetic differences separating modern humans from both non-human primates (for example, chimpanzees) and archaic hominins (Neanderthals and Denisovans) are known, linking human-specific mutations to the cognitive phenotype remains a challenge.  The new strategy is to focus on human-specific changes at the level of intermediate
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Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice

The genetics of behavioural differences between closely related species are less well understood than the genetics of morphological differences. Many animals build elaborate structures — such as hives, nests and burrows — that 'evolve' as natural selection acts on the behaviour of their builders. This study uses an example of this phenomenon to tackle the question of whether complex behaviours
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Why Wolves Are Forever Wild, but Dogs Can Be Tamed

Dogs and wolves are genetically so similar, it's been difficult for biologists to understand why wolves remain fiercely wild, while dogs can gladly become "man's best friend." Now, doctoral research by evolutionary biologist Kathryn Lord at the University of Massachusetts Amherst suggests the different behaviors are related to the animals' earliest sensory experiences and the critical period of socialization.
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